The Post-War World
*In July 1945, just two months after V-E Day, the leaders of the Allied nations met in Potsdam, a suburb of Berlin. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin met. Truman had replaced FDR at his death shortly after his return from Yalta. Churchill would be replaced during the meeting by Clement Atlee of the Labour Party. Despite their joint victory over Germany, these Allies would soon being to disagree over the disposition of Europe.
*Truman was mad, because the Soviets had not allowed free elections in Poland as they promised, and he was rude to Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet Foreign Minister. Americans had fought for freedom and democracy, and wanted to see free elections in Europe. The Soviets had fought to defend themselves against invasion, and wanted to prevent another one. They also wanted subject nations as rewards for their sacrifices in the Great Patriotic War.
*The Soviets used
their military presence
throughout Eastern Europe
to manipulate elections and other government functions until
became satellite nations, as the Soviets’ subjects on their
known. Because the Soviet Army was much more powerful
Allies and because the other Allies were still very busy in
could not stop him. Furthermore, neither Truman nor
Atlee was a
negotiator at this conference. Therefore, they had to
of Stalin’s demands for territory at Potsdam.
*Bulgaria was largely under Communist control by 1946 when Tsar Simeon II was run out of the Country. In 1948 Albania, dominated first by the Italians and then by Yugoslavia asked for Soviet aid and became dominated.
*The Czechs tried hard to fight for their freedom, especially after seeing how badly the Communists treated their neighbours, but the Communists already in the Czech government began replacing their opponents with other reds until they had complete control, although the Czechs would continue to resist Soviet dominance.
*In Hungary, Communists lost the
1945, but the Soviet army demanded the police be given to
Soon anti-Communists were arrested on flimsy charges and
*In Rumania, the Red Army forced King Michel I to appoint a Communist Prime minister, who, in 1947 forced the King to abdicate.
*In 1949, the Soviet Union formed their occupation zone in Germany into the German Democratic Republic in response to the western occupation zones being merged into the Federal Republic of Germany. The city of Berlin remained divided, too, with the eastern half serving as the capital of East Germany and the western half belonging to West Germany (whose capital city was now Bonn). West and East Germany would remain separate countries until 1990.
*The Finns signed a
treaty of co-operation
with the Soviets in 1948, but it allowed them to remain
themselves, making them essentially a free country.
*In Yugoslavia, Communists came to power under Josip Broz, also known as Tito. He refused to blindly obey Stalin, who tried unsuccessfully to overthrow him in 1948. Yugoslavia would remain almost completely free of Soviet domination, but Tito would still be a brutal and ruthless dictator.
*At Potsdam, Truman learned about the successful test of the atom bomb in New Mexico, and tried to threaten Stalin with it. Stalin already knew about the bomb and told Truman so in infuriating detail. However, the threat of the A-Bomb would characterise US-Soviet relations for 45 years to come.
*In February 1946 with the war over and the need for co-operation gone, Stalin publicly predicted the triumph of communism over capitalism. In Fulton, Missouri a month later, Winston Churchill, perhaps the greatest speaker of all the Allied leaders, responded: ‘From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.’ This, said Churchill, was not the free Europe for which the Allies had fought, and spies and fifth columnists throughout the world were threatening to snuff out democracy elsewhere.
*Churchill said America needed to stand firm against the Soviets and not turn her back on the world as she had after WWI. For the next fifty years, America and her allies would confront the Soviets and her satellites at every turn and in every way, but would do so without directly going to war. Rather, the two sides would engage in trade sanctions, spying, and minor wars fought by minor allies. Because there was a constant state of tension during which the danger of nuclear war soon became a real and constant possibility, this period of extended peace was called the Cold War.
*The end of WWII did not end tension in East Asia, either. Japan was occupied by the US Army, Korea was partitioned between the USA and USSR at the 38th parallel, and in China the Nationalists and Communists fought each other with the support of the US and Soviet Union.
*During this period America would follow the policy of containment, or the attempt to keep communism from spreading by whatever means necessary, including economic and military aid to countries that seemed to be in danger of falling. The hope was that, if unable to expand, communism would eventually collapse on its own from internal failings--their bad economic system and repressive governments could not last.
*In 1947, the British, who had been doing much the same said they could no longer afford it and asked the US to start helping Greece and Turkey. This forced America to become a world power, and the US did so, sending $400 million to those nations. This was part of the Truman Doctrine, stated in 1947, that the United States would support any nation that tried to fight against Communism.