Test 1:  The Growth of America

Understand the following terms and concepts.

1.     The Tariff

2.     The end of Reconstruction

3.     The New South

4.     Urbanisation (steel frame construction, safety elevators, mass transit, refrigeration, tenements, parks, country clubs)

5.     Temperance

6.     Philip Armour and Gustavus Swift

7.     George Westinghouse

8.     George Pullman

9.     Milton Hershey

10.   Thomas Edison

11.   Samuel Morse

12.   Horatio Alger

13.   The Gilded Age

14.   The Bloody Shirt

15.   Credit Mobilier

16.   The Whiskey Ring

17.   Half-Breed, Stalwart, and Mugwump Republicans

18.   Ulysses S. Grant, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur

19.   Roscoe Conkling, James G. Blaine

20.   The Pendleton Civil Service Act

21.   Machine Politics, Boss Tweed, and Tammany Hall

22.   Corporations

23.   Cartels

24.   Vertical Integration, Horizontal Integration, Interlocking Directorates

25.   Jay Gould and Jim Fisk

26.   Stock-watering and Pooling (price-fixing)

27.   Andrew Carnegie

28.   The Gospel of Wealth

29.   John D. Rockefeller

30.   J.P. Morgan

31.   Social Darwinism

32.   Iron-clad oaths (yellow-dog contracts), black lists, and scabs

33.   Workplace conditions

34.   Commonwealth v. Hunt

35.   Unions and collective bargaining

36.   The Knights of Labor

37.   Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor

38.   Eugene V. Debs, the American Railway Union, and the Industrial Workers of the World

39.   The Eight-Hour Day

40.   The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 (beginning in Martinsburg, WV)

41.   The Haymarket Explosion

42.   The Homestead Strike

43.   The Pullman Strike

44.   Benjamin Harrison and Grover Cleveland

45.   Immigration in the 1840s and 1850s (Old Immigrants)

46.   Immigration in the late 1800s (New Immigrants)

47.   Nativism

48.   The Homestead Act

49.   Ellis Island and Angel Island

50.   Ethnic Neighbourhoods

51.   The Chinese Exclusion Act

52.   The Social Gospel

53.   The YMCA, the YWCA, and the Salvation Army

54.   Chatauqua meetings

55.   Normal Schools

56.   Booker T. Washington and the Tuskegee Institute

57.   Thomas Durant and the Union Pacific; Leland Stanford and the Big Four and the Central Pacific; the Transcontinental Railroad

58.   the Indian Wars

59.   The Comanche and the Texas Rangers

60.   Black Kettle, Colonel Chivington, and the Sand Creek Massacre

61.   The Battle of Washita

62.   George Custer, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and the Little Bighorn

63.   the Nez Perce and Chief Joseph

64.   The Apache and Geronimo

65.   The Dawes Severalty Act

66.   Wovoka and the Ghost Dance

67.   Wounded Knee

68.   Helen Hunt Jackson

69.   The Carlisle Indian School

70.   Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis

71.   California Gold Rush, the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush, the Comstock Lode, the Alaska Gold Rush

72.   Helldorados

73.   The Western Federation of Miners

74.   Couer d’Alene Miners’ Strike

75.   The Long Drive

76.   Cow Towns

77.   Range Wars

78.   Barbed Wire

79.   The Great Die-Up

80.   John Deere

81.   Cyrus McCormick

82.   Improvements in farming technology

83.   Problems facing farmers in the late 1800s

84.   Share-croppers and Tenant Farmers

85.   The Boll Weevil

86.   The Gold Standard

87.   Free Silver and Bimetallism

88.   The Grange

89.   Granger Laws

90.   Farmers’ Alliances

91.   Mary Lease

92.   Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company v. Illinois (the Wabash Case)

93.   Interstate Commerce Act/Interstate Commerce Commission

94.   Sherman Anti-Trust Act

95.   Sherman Silver Purchase Act

96.   William McKinley and the McKinley Tariff

97.   The Billion Dollar Congress

98.   The rise and fall of the People’s Party (Populists)

99.   Coxey’s Army

100. William Jennings Bryan and the Cross of Gold Speech


Be prepared to answer two of the following questions.

1.     Analyse the ways in which farmers and industrial workers responded to industrialization in the Gilded Age (1865-1900).


2.     Evaluate the impact of the Civil War on political and economic developments in TWO of the following regions.

     The South

     The North

     The West

Focus your answer on the period between 1865 and 1900.


3.     Explain how TWO of the following individuals responded to the economic and social problems created by industrialisation during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

     Jane Addams

     Andrew Carnegie

Samuel Gompers

     Eugene V. Debs


4.   For whom and to what extent was the American West a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890?


5.     Analyse Frederick Jackson Turner’s argument that democracy was created and conserved by American expansion.

This page last updated 17 September, 2018.