End of Course Exam Study Guide
18.Credit Mobilier: A company created to build the Union Pacific Railroad that then overcharged the Union Pacific (which also owned Credit Mobilier), which passed the costs on to the US government, making profits for the owners and for Congressmen who were bribed. It came to light during the Grant administration, and was another of many scandals that hurt his reputation.
19.Whiskey Ring: Scandal during the
Grant administration during which politicians stole whiskey
excise tax money.
20.Tammany Hall: Democratic political
machine that controlled
21.Civil Service Reform: The idea that
government jobs should be awarded based upon merit rather than
the spoils system (rewards for political work). This idea began to be
put into force after the assassination of President Garfield by
a disappointed office-seeker.
It was the cause of a major split in the Republican Party
between the reforming Half-Breeds (later Mugwumps, later
Progressives) and the conservative Stalwarts.
22.Granger Laws: Laws passed by
politicians supported by farmers' groups the Grangers. Most of them were
attempts to regulate the railroads.
23.Interstate Commerce Act (1887): Created the Interstate
Commerce Commission to regulate transportation. It was weak at first,
but later was able to regulate the railroads (and later other
forms of transportation) effectively.
24.Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier
Thesis: According to Turner,
25.Social Darwinism: The application of
27.The Spanish-American War (1898): Yellow journalists
(sensationalist newspaper publishers) encouraged a war with
Spain to protect the peoples of Spain's colonies, expand
American trade (by providing coaling stations, opening markets,
and protecting American businesses in Spain's colonies), gain
territory (Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam, and Guantanamo
Bay), get revenge for the (probably accidental) sinking of USS Maine, spread
Anglo-Saxon culture, and sell newspapers. This set a precedent
29.Meat Inspection Act (1906) and Pure Food
and Drug Act (1906): Regulated the medical and meat-packing
industries after the publication of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.
idea of the people proposing a law.
idea of the people voting on laws.
idea of the people voting to remove an elected official from
who tried to expose problems of their time (early 20th
alcohol. Became law
nationwide with the ratification of the XVIII Amendment in 1919.
35.The 'Perfect 36:' Term used to honour
state representative from