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38.governor albert h. roberts: governor of
40.w.e.b. dubois: author of the souls of black folk
who believed that african-americans should demand equality as
soon as possible. helped
found the national association for the advancement of colored
people (naacp). frequently
disagreed with booker t washington.
41.marcus garvey: black nationalist and
black separatist of the early 20th century who
believed that black people should become economically
self-sufficient and eventually go back to africa to found their
own politically, socially, and economically independent nation. tried to create
black-owned businesses and clubs.
eventually arrested for mail fraud.
42.the lost generation: writers of the 1920s who
felt alienated by, and criticised, the consumerist middle-class
life of the time.
43.the treaty of
44.totalitarianism: a government that
seeks to exert total control over its citizens' lives, including
their beliefs, often through a cult of personality around a
leader. common in
fascist and communist dictatorships.
intense love for one's nation (often defined by ethnicity),
which can lead to prejudice and even aggression against members
of other nations (including ethnic minorities living in one's
ideology of extreme nationalism, frequently to the point of
racism, mixed with militarism.
examples include nazi germany and
47.communism: a belief that all property
should be owned by everyone.
particularly used by workers' movements to insist that
the means of production be owned by the people who worked with
them. karl marx
wrote that it could only be implemented by a bloody
such a dictatorship would later fade away, but in reality, never
did peacefully. communist
revolutions overthrew the russian tsar in 1917 and the republic
of china in 1949. they
later tried to create spheres of influence to compete against
48.anti-semitism: hatred for jews as a race
(technically, hatred for arabs, too).
49.hoovervilles: shantytowns built by the
homeless during the depression.
named (as many things were) after hebert hoover, who was
president when the depression began.
50.the bonus army: a group of veterans who
51.social security: new deal pensions for the
elderly funded by a payroll tax.
52.wpa (works progress administration): new deal program to
create jobs, including for artists and writers, many of whom
decorated public buildings.
they also collected the stories of former slaves who were
still alive and could be interviewed.
54.indian reorganisation act (1934): also called the indian new
deal, it reversed the dawes act, protecting tribal lands and
recognising tribal governments.
55.fdic (federal deposit insurance
corporation): new deal program to insure
deposits in banks so that people could not lose their life
savings in a future bank failure.
56.ccc (civilian conservation corps): new deal program to create
jobs for young men working outdoors. they built parts and
part of the
57.wagner act/fair labour standards act: act passed during the new
deal to recognise the rights of unions to strike and bargain
loans to returning wwii veterans and helped many pay for