AMERICAN HISTORY
End of Course Exam Study Guide
Page 3

37.Harry Burn:  Republican state representative from McMinn County who cast the deciding vote allowing Tennessee to ratify the XIX Amendment.

38.Governor Albert H. Roberts:  Governor of Tennessee (1919-1921) who supported the ratification of the XIX Amendment by calling a special session of the state legislature to vote on it and performed the marriage ceremony for Alvin and Gracie York.

39.Harlem Renaissance:  A period of African-American literary, musical, and artistic growth in the 1920s.

40.W.E.B. DuBois:  Author of The Souls of Black Folk who believed that African-Americans should demand equality as soon as possible.  Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).  Frequently disagreed with Booker T Washington.

41.Marcus Garvey:  Black nationalist and black separatist of the early 20th century who believed that Black people should become economically self-sufficient and eventually go back to Africa to found their own politically, socially, and economically independent nation.  Tried to create black-owned businesses and clubs.  Eventually arrested for mail fraud.

42.The Lost Generation:  Writers of the 1920s who felt alienated by, and criticised, the consumerist middle-class life of the time.

43.The Treaty of Versailles:  Treaty that ended WWI, taking land from Germany, imposing crushing reparations, and deliberately humiliating her people.  Resentment of this treaty and the politicians who signed it was a cause of WWII.  It also included Woodrow Wilson's idea of a League of Nations, but this failed to contain fascist or Japanese aggression and was a failure of the idea of collective security.

44.Totalitarianism:  A government that seeks to exert total control over its citizens' lives, including their beliefs, often through a cult of personality around a leader.  Common in fascist and communist dictatorships.

45.Nationalism:  An intense love for one's nation (often defined by ethnicity), which can lead to prejudice and even aggression against members of other nations (including ethnic minorities living in one's own nation).

46.Fascism:  An ideology of extreme nationalism, frequently to the point of racism, mixed with militarism.  Examples include Nazi Germany and Italy under Mussolini.

47.Communism:  A belief that all property should be owned by everyone.  Particularly used by workers' movements to insist that the means of production be owned by the people who worked with them.  Karl Marx wrote that it could only be implemented by a bloody dictatorship.  Theoretically such a dictatorship would later fade away, but in reality, never did peacefully.  Communist revolutions overthrew the Russian Tsar in 1917 and the Republic of China in 1949.  They later tried to create spheres of influence to compete against the United States in the Cold War.

48.anti-Semitism:  Hatred for Jews as a race (technically, hatred for Arabs, too).

49.Hoovervilles:  Shantytowns built by the homeless during the Depression.  Named (as many things were) after Hebert Hoover, who was president when the Depression began.

50.The Bonus Army:  A group of veterans who marched to Washington to demand that their pensions be paid early.  Their camp was attacked by the US Army and some were killed.

51.Social Security:  New Deal Pensions for the elderly funded by a payroll tax. 

52.WPA (Works Progress Administration):  New Deal program to create jobs, including for artists and writers, many of whom decorated public buildings.  They also collected the stories of former slaves who were still alive and could be interviewed.

53.TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority):  New Deal program that built dams in the Tennessee Valley to create jobs, control floods, and provide cheap hydroelectricity.

54.Indian Reorganisation Act (1934):  Also called the Indian New Deal, it reversed the Dawes Act, protecting tribal lands and recognising tribal governments.

55.FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation):  New Deal program to insure deposits in banks so that people could not lose their life savings in a future bank failure.

56.CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps):  New Deal program to create jobs for young men working outdoors.  They built parts and part of the Appalachian Trail.

57.Wagner Act/Fair Labour Standards Act:  Act passed during the New Deal to recognise the rights of unions to strike and bargain collectively.

58.G.I. Bill:  Gave loans to returning WWII veterans and helped many pay for college.

59.Fort Campbell:  Army base built near Clarksville, Tennessee in 1941 to accommodate the expansion of the military after WWII began.  Also held Axis POWs during WWII.



This page last updated 7 December, 2011.
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