60.camp forrest: army
training camp near tullahoma, tn. one of the largest
training camps in the country.
was also used to house german and italian pows.
61.cordell hull: tennessean who was secretary of state
for franklin roosevelt. helped
create the united nations.
62.oak ridge: town in tennessee chosen for refining
uranium as part of the manhattan project to build an atomic
bomb. oak ridge was chosen because its
location would make it hard to spy on and hard to attack. it also had cheap
electricity thanks to tva.
the uranium refined there was later used to make 'little
boy,' dropped on hiroshima. the plutonium used in
'fat man,' dropped on nagasaki, was refined in hanford, washington.
town built by the aluminum company of america in tennessee. alcoa built
hydroelectric dams on tributaries of the tennessee. their aluminum was
used in wwi and wwii warplanes.
64.eastman chemical company: a chemical company located
in kingsport, tennessee, and one of the largest
employers in the state. it
produced explosives for the military during wwii at the holston
ordnance works and helped manage the y-12 nuclear reactor in oak ridge during wwii, bringing
scientists from kingsport to work there.
65.plessy v. ferguson: 1896 supreme court
case that declared 'separate but equal' segregation was legal.
66.brown v. board: 1954 supreme court
case that declared that separate facilities in education were
inherently unequal; ordered desegregation with all deliberate
67.miranda v. arizona: 1966 supreme court case
that determined that anyone placed under arrest must be made
aware of his rights, or else information obtained from him is
not admissible in court.
68.gideon v. wainwright: 1963 supreme court case
that determined that accused persons have a right to an attorney
while on trial and that the court must provide one for those who
cannot afford one.
69.escobedo v. illinois: 1964 supreme court case
that determined that people in police custody have a right to an
attorney while being questioned by the police.
70.clinton high school: high school in clinton, tn, that was the first to be
desegregated (1956-57 school year) in accordance with the brown v. board
71.the clinton twelve:
african-american students who attended clinton high school.
72.governor frank clement: governor of tennessee during the integration of
clinton high school who sent the national
guard to protect the black students. he also supported
education across the state and made sure that all students got
textbooks paid for by the state.
73.little rock central high school: high school in arkansas desegregated in 1957-58
in accordance with the brown
v. board decision. it
was opposed by many local people and governor orval faubus, who
used the national guard to keep black students out of the
president eisenhower sent the 101st airborne to
protect the students and force integration.
74.montgomery bus boycott: boycott of the montgomery, alabama bus system by
african-americans following the arrest of rosa parks for
refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger. it lasted from
december, 1955 to december, 1956, and forced montgomery to desegregate its bus
luther king, junior was one of the leaders and this helped him
become nationally famous.
75.freedom riders: white and black people,
mostly students, who rode integrated busses into the south. some were from tennessee, and at least one of the
busses was loaded in nashville. the first freedom
rides were in 1961.
churches, homes, and businesses were often bombed in birmingham, alabama. the most famous was at
the 16th street baptist church in 1963
which killed four black girls.
77.nashville lunch counters: site of peaceful
sit-ins organised by students from february to may, 1960 that
integrated nashville's lunch counters.
78.martin luther king, junior's march to washington: march by 200,000-300,000
people to washington, d.c. in august, 1963 to demand
civil rights laws. king
made his famous 'i have a dream' speech during the event. this march helped lead
to passage of the civil rights act of 1964 and the voting rights
act of 1965.
79.the civil rights act (1964): outlawed many forms of
discrimination against blacks and women, including racial
segregation. it ended unequal application of voter registration
requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the
workplace, and by facilities that served the general public.
page last updated 7 december, 2011.
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