AMERICAN HISTORY
End of Course Exam Study Guide
Page 5

80.The Civil Rights Act (1968):  Outlawed discrimination in housing, including 'steering' (encouraging members of particular races or ethnic groups to move into particularly neighbourhoods) and 'redlining' (refusing to give loans to people seeking to buy property in certain areas, often based on race or average income).

81.The Great Society:  Lyndon Johnson's efforts to create and expand welfare programs.

82.The Bay of Pigs:  Area where Cuban exiles invaded Cuba in 1961 hoping to spark a revolution against Castro.  John F Kennedy promised them air support, but withdrew it at the last minute, leading to their defeat.  This contributed to the USSR's decision to put nuclear missiles in Cuba.

83.Brinksmanship:  Pushing an issue as close to the brink of a crisis as possible in order to force the other side to give in.  However, this means that threats must always get worse.  During the Cold War this included seeming willing to go to nuclear war.  It was part of both sides' strategy during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

84.The Cuban Missile Crisis:  Crisis in 1962 when America U-2 spy planes discovered that the Soviet Union had placed nuclear missiles in Cuba in response to the Bay of Pigs invasion and to the presence of American nuclear missiles in Italy and Turkey.  Both sides pushed the issue close to the brink of nuclear war, until Khrushchev backed down and removed the missiles.  Kennedy also agreed to remove US missiles from Turkey and not to invade Cuba again.

85.Peaceful Co-existence:  Khrushchev's stated policy of trying to get along with the United States and their allies.

86.Strom Thurmond:  Governor of South Carolina and later senator from that state who ran for president in 1948 as a Dixiecrat opposed to integration.  He later set a record by holding a filibuster for over 24 hours in opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957.

87.Eugene 'Bull' Connor:  Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, he controlled the police and fire department and used them to oppose the Civil Rights movement in the early and mid-1960s, often violently.

88.George Wallace:  Governor of Alabama in the 1960s who opposed integration.  He ran for president in 1968 with the American Independent Party appealing to opponents of integration but also to an urban working class who were angry about urban riots and hippie protesters.

89.Diane Nash:  African-American woman who, while a student at Fisk University in Nashville, helped organise the Nashville Sit-Ins, the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, the first Freedom Ride, the Birmingham protests of 1963, and the Selma marches of 1964. 

90.Betty Friedan:  Author of The Feminine Mystique, the most famous of her many works criticising the traditional role of women in society, particularly the highly conformist expectations of the 1950s and early 1960s.

91.Martin Luther King, junior:  A major leader of the Civil Rights movement who insisted on non-violence.  He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1968.

92.Malcolm X:  Black nationalist who was a member of the Nation of Islam until he turned away from the idea of violence, after which he was murdered.

93.Stokely Carmichael:  Member of SNCC who came to believe that non-violence was no long enough by the mid-1960s.  He also tried to cultivate a separate Black identity and encouraged African-Americans to become economically independent from whites.

94.Albert Gore, senior:  Senator from Tennessee who refused to sign the Southern Manifesto, a document drawn up by many Southern politicians opposing desegregation.  He was eventually forced from office by Nixon's Southern Strategy due to his support for Civil Rights and his opposition to the Vietnam War.

95.The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution:  Resolution passed by Congress in August, 1964 in response to North Vietnamese attacks on US Navy vessels in the Gulf of Tonkin.  It gave the president almost unlimited power to make war without being an official declaration of war.

96.The Grand Ole Opry:  One of the oldest radio programs in the world, it has been broadcast since 1925.  It helped make country music popular around the world and helped make Nashville a centre of the music industry.

97.WSM:  Call sign of the radio station that broadcasts the Grand Ole Opry.




This page last updated 7 December, 2011.
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