UNITED STATES HISTORY THROUGH FILM
1776

*Although many colonists feared that Congress might be too radical, they were also concerned about the loss of local control and the increasingly intrusive British government, which many feared was conspiring against their liberties.  They saw what was happening in Massachusetts, and feared it could happen to them next.  Consequently, boycotts were mostly followed and militia units begin to train seriously, and the British responded disastrously.

*Worried about colonial resistance, General Gage, military governor of Massachusetts, heard of colonial powder stores in Lexington and Concord, and decided he needs to seize them, and also hoped to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock who were in Lexington at the time.  He drew the best soldiers--the light infantry and the grenadiers--from all his regiments in Boston, although the fact that they were drawn from different regiments would later mean that they did not work together as well as they might have if he had sent a single regiment used to following the same officers.

*Certain colonists heard of Gage's plan, and three of them went to warn the towns along the projected route of the army, and especially to warn Adams and Hancock that the regulars were coming.

*Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Dr. Samuel Prescott together managed to warn the militia or minutemen, and Adams and Hancock escaped (although only Prescott completed the entire ride to Concord, after the three were stopped and questioned by British soldiers).

*Warned, the militia gathered on Lexington green on 19 April, 1775, where the British ordered them to disperse, but fired upon as they went (because they did not also drop their weapons as they were told to do).  Eight minutemen were killed and ten wounded.  One British solider was wounded as well. 

*The regulars proceeded to Concord, where they face more determined opposition.  There ‘the embattled farmers stood/and fired the shot heard round the world.’  Despite this resistance, the British destroyed some gun carriages, entrenching tools, flour, and a liberty pole.

*The British then headed back toward Boston, but were fired upon the whole way back by militiamen hiding behind trees, fences, and buildings.  174 regulars were wounded, 73 were killed, and 26 went missing and a siege of Boston by New England militia began, with Gage's men trapped in the city. 

*As the siege entered its second month in May, 1775, the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia with delegates eventually arrived from all thirteen colonies.  This group would ultimately lead the colonies and then the United States for the majority of the Revolutionary War.

*Some delegates to the Congress were in favour of independence (these included John and Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, who had supported raising troops in March, 1775 with the cry of 'give me liberty or give me death') while others still wanted to reconcile with Great Britain (including John Dickinson).

*George Washington also arrived as a delegate from Virginia, but as a war hero from the French and Indian War, a representative of one of the few colonies to send soldiers to New England from outside that region, and the tallest man in the room, he was soon made overall commander of the Continental Army and headed off for Boston.  When he arrived and proclaimed the collection of rag-tag militia there to be the Continental Army, the flag he flew was still based on the Union Jack, but with thirteen red and white stripes for the thirteen colonies attached. 

*During the war, Congress was made up of varying numbers of delegates from each of the colonies.  It did not matter how many were present from a given state, as each state got one vote regardless of size or wealth.  Congress had a president, but he was essentially a chairman running the debate rather than an important figure in his own right.
 
*John Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, wrote a letter to King George III called the Olive Branch Petition.  This petition expressed the colonies’ loyalty to the King and asked him to call for a cease-fire until some solution could be found.

*In August, 1775, before the petition could arrive, George III declared the colonies to be in rebellion and outside his protection, so that further action would be treason, punishable by death.

*In September, 1775, George III began hiring Hessian mercenaries.  The colonists felt betrayed by the introduction of foreign forces into what they had thought was a domestic matter.

*In November, 1775, the Congress learnt that King George had rejected to Olive Branch Petition.  It seemed that the last chance for peace was gone. 

*In January, 1776, Thomas Paine published Common Sense.  This was a simple and compelling pamphlet that everyone could understand.  Unlike most pamphlets written at the time, it did not refer extensively to the classical Greek and Latin writers.  Rather, as the title implies, it drew upon common sense—is it sensible that a continent should be ruled by an island?  The book argued for (and convinced many people to support) a break from Britain—possibly even a violent one.  Within a few months 120,000 copies were sold, making it the best-selling publication in the colonies.

*During this time fighting continued.  The only major battle around Boston, the Battle of Bunker Hill on 14 June, 1775, was a Pyrrhic victory for the British, as they won with terrible loss of life, but did not actually break out of Boston.

*American forces, primarily the Green Mountain Boys from Vermont, went to the British fortress of Ticonderoga, caught the guards by surprise, and seized it without a fight.  The cannons seized there were taken to Boston by Henry Knox where they were turned on the British trapped in the city beginning on 3 March, 1776.  On 9 March a ceasefire began and on 17 March, almost exactly 11 months after the battles of Lexington and Concord, the British evacuated the city (along with hundreds of local Loyalists).  17 March is still celebrated as Evacuation Day in Boston.

*In the spring and early summer of 1776, a number of towns, counties, and even colonies began to issue local declarations of independence, or at least sent instructions to their legislatures or Congressional delegates to begin working for independence.

*With the Olive Branch Petition rejected, fighting continuing, and people increasingly inflamed by Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, Congress decided to declare independence following its proposal by Richard Henry Lee.  Five men (John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson) were chosen to work on this, and Mr Jefferson was selected to write it.
 
*The Declaration is a statement of purpose.  It contains, first, an explanation of why it is necessary to issue a declaration; second, an explanation of the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; third, it gives a long list of complaints against King George, some exaggerated or invented, but based on various real problems the colonies experienced and meant to demonstrate that he was a tyrant to whom they owed no loyalty any more; and finally, a concluding resolution in which the it was declared that the colonies were, and of right ought to be, free and independent states and the signers agreed to support the declaration with their lives, fortunes, and sacred honour.

*This was based on the concept of the social contract and the rule of law, under which governments must work for the public good rather than personal interest and derive their powers from the consent of the governed.  If a government ceases to respect the lives, liberty, and property of its people, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such a government.

*After Mr Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, Congress debated it and to make sure the grievances listed expressed all infringements on their various colonies, and also removed a few things.  The most controversial complaint against King George III was that he had waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.  This criticism of slavery was removed at the insistence of South Carolina and Georgia’s delegations.  Some people even then saw hypocrisy in this:  English dictionary-maker Samuel Johnson said, ‘Why do we hear the loudest yelps for liberty from the drivers of Negroes?’

*On 2 July, 1776, Congress agreed to declare independence, and Mr Jefferson’s draft was considered, debated, and modified.

*On 4 July, 1776, the modified Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, although most delegates did not end up signing it until later, mostly in August and September, but some even later than that.

*Out of fear of reprisals, the finished, authenticated, signed document was not sent out to the states until 18 January, 1777, after the Continental armies had won a couple of victories, although the states had heard the wording of the document already, and George Washington read a copy of the Declaration to the people of New York City on July 9th.  They then pulled down the statue of King George III, cut off the head, cut off its nose, mounted the rest of the head on a spike, and melted the rest of the statue (which was made of lead) down into musket balls.
 
*With this national Declaration of Independence, other states begin to issue their own declaration and most begin to write new constitutions.

*However, there were some complaints.  Abigail Adams reminded her husband that this Declaration did not really affect women (because they were not fully citizens, being unable to vote, largely unable to own property, and constrained by other laws—under the principle of coverture, a woman was essentially an appendage of her husbands).  Slaves certainly were not getting independence or liberty from America, although some British leaders, such as Governor Lord Dunmore offered freedom to any slave who would fight for the British.  Even with greater freedom and democracy than the world had ever known starting to come into existence, complete liberty and equality were a long way away.

*Furthermore, not every American supported the Declaration of Independence.  John Adams estimated that a third of Americans were actually loyal to the king, while third were indifferent, and only a third were true blue.  This meant that besides being a war for independence, the American Revolution also became a civil war, with patriots fighting against loyalists, who were also called Tories, and who often had their homes destroyed and their property seized.

*Besides, before this Declaration meant anything, the colonies had to win a war, and the war did not seem to be going well.

--Introduce 1776.

    -1776 was released in 1972 and is based on a Broadway musical of the same name first performed in 1969.  Many of the actors from Broadway played the same characters in the film that they did on the stage. 

    -The musical was popular enough to be performed in the White House for President Nixon, although when the film version was made he requested that one song--'Cool, Cool, Considerate Men' be removed because he felt it insulted conservatives.  It was removed from the version released in theatres, but the scene was still filmed and the footage was saved, and later restored to the DVD version of the movie (although some parts of the scene are a little rough and poorly lit because they did not get the same attention the rest of the movie did).

    -The film was made on sets built in or near Hollywood, and are pretty realistic, although the large calendar and the board that shows how each colony is voting on independence were made up for the play and the movie to make it easy for the audience to follow the action.  The costumes are decent in terms of historical accuracy, if not exceptional.  A lot of the dialogue is taken from letters, pamphlets, books, and other things written by the Founding Fathers, although often one man's words are put in another man's mouth for dramatic effect.

    -There were at least 50 delegates to the Second Continental Congress at the time the play is set (June and early July, 1776), but only about 30 are shown (every colony had more delegates than is shown in the movie, except Delaware, which did have the three that are shown), and even some who are present leave for part of the movie while their historical counterparts did not.  This was done mostly for simplicity's sake, but also to remove powerful characters who would have taken over the play, such as Samuel Adams (many of whose attitudes are expressed by his cousin John Adams).  Others who are shown have attitudes rather different from the historical versions of the same person.  In particular, several characters who are shown as particularly hostile towards independence were in fact not as opposed to the idea as suggested for dramatic purposes (a few even supported it), and opposition to independence in general is exaggerated for this time period (June and early July, 1776, although that had been significant opposition to it earlier).

    -John Adams of Massachusetts is the main character in the movie, and describes himself as 'obnoxious and disliked,' which is in fact a description he really did provide of himself many years later, although this may have been the cynicism of an old man who had not enjoyed serving as Vice-President or President.  At the time the Continental Congress met, he was widely respected and influential, and did play a large role in promoting independence, and served Congress as a diplomat in France, the Netherlands, and Britain.  In the movie, he is something of a combination of the historical John Adams and his cousin Samuel Adams (who was actually in Congress at this time).

    -Abigail Adams was in Boston while John Adams served as a Congressional delegate in Philadelphia, but they often wrote to each other, and valued each other's advice enormously.

    -Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania is referred to as Doctor Franklin throughout the movie because he received honorary doctorates from St Andrew's University in Scotland and Oxford University in England for his contributions to science in the studies of light, electricity, weather, oceanography, and more, as well as his many practical inventions such as bifocals, the lightning rod, and the stove.  Although he initially tried to promote understanding and reconciliation between Britain and the American colonies, he eventually decided that was impossible.  He would later serve alongside John Adams as American diplomats in France, where each would actually find the other very annoying--their friendship in the movie is largely fictional.  Franklin also served as Governor of Pennsylvania and helped write the US Constitution.  Franklin is played by Howard Da Silva, who was blacklisted during the Red Scare and was unable to work in movies or television throughout the 1950s, although he remained active in the theatre while he was blacklisted in Hollywood.

    -Thomas Jefferson of Virginia was a former member of the House of Burgesses with an interest in science, architecture, and music who played the violin.  He is depicted as recently married and desperate to return to his wife--in fact, they had been married for 4 1/2 years at this point, although he did want to return to her because he was worried about her health following a recent miscarriage.  He would later serve as governor of Virginia, ambassador to France, Secretary of State, Vice-President, and President.

    -John Hancock of Massachusetts is President of Congress, although that is largely a ceremonial role in which he serves as a chairman for Congressional meetings, but has little real power.  Beyond that, he had been a prominent member of the Sons of Liberty and was one of the richest men in the colonies thanks to his successful shipping business--and possibly smuggling.

    -Stephen Hopkins of Rhode Island was a former governor of Rhode Island and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for that colony (and not quite as wild a character as depicted in the movie).  He is shown wearing a hat at all times, and that is because he became a Quaker after marrying a woman who was a member of a prominent Quaker family.  Quakers believed that because all people are equal in the eyes of God, they should be equal in all ways among each other, too.  Traditionally a man took his hat off when in the presence of his social superiors, but Quakers believed that was inappropriate and artificial--the called it 'hat honour'--and so they never removed their hats, and also traditionally called people 'thee' and 'thou' rather than the more formal 'ye' and 'you.'

    -John Dickinson of Pennsylvania is portrayed as the main opponent of Independence, and he was the author of the Olive Branch Petition that tried to restore peace between Britain and the colonies even after fighting had broken out in Massachusetts.  Although it is not mentioned, one of his objections to Independence is that he represented an area with many Quakers (including his wife), and Quakers are pacifists, opposed to any violence, so not only he, but the people he represented, hoped to avoid open warfare as a way to resolve their disagreements with Britain--he certainly did disagree with British many policies and had even written about the unique character of the American people and had written a resolution in Congress about how it was necessary for the colonists to take up arms to defend their liberties, but he still did not want to reject the British system as a whole.

    -Show 1776

    -#4 & #5 are mostly true--John Adams did ask Abigail to make saltpeter (which in turn is used to make gunpowder), in part because it was normally purchased from overseas, and the war made that difficult.  Abigail also did want pins, but not just for sewing--due to a shortage of cash in New England during the war, pins were actually used as a form of emergency currency.

    -#6 is true--Thomas Paine's Common Sense was a best seller and did convince many Americans that it was not common sense for a continent to be ruled by an island.

    -#7 is true--George Washington was commander-in-chief of the army, chosen (in large part by John Adams) to ensure that the South was involved in the war, too, and not just New England.

    -#8 introduces Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, who, as shown in the movie, did introduce the resolution that the united colonies were, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.  However, he did not leave Congress to convince Virginia to support independence—they sent instructions to him in Philadelphia.

    -In an interesting bit of film trivia, the fountain that is in the background for Lee’s musical number, ‘The Lees of Old Virginia,’ is better known to later generations for appearing in the background of the opening sequence of the TV show Friends.

    -#9 is true.  Dr. Lyman Hall was both a doctor and a minister, as stated in the movie, and not only served as Georgia's first delegate to Congress, but played a big role in getting Georgia to send anyone to Congress.  During the Revolutionary War, the British burned his farm.  He would later serve as governor of Georgia, and in that position he played a big role in creating the University of Georgia.

    -#12 Edward Rutledge was the youngest signer of the Declaration of Independence and later served as a state legislator and Governor of South Carolina.  While he is presented later in the movie as a strong supporter of slavery, and South Carolina and Georgia together did insist that the Declaration's criticism of the slave trade be removed as shown in #74, Rutledge himself was not known to have been outspoken on the issue.

    -#14 is mainly correct--Read, Rodney, and McKean were the entire delegation from Delaware, and Read was initially opposed to independence, while the others were for it.  Read did eventually sign the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution, however, and later served as Governor of Delaware, Senator from Delaware, and Chief Justice of Delaware.  He and McKean were also actually friends and neighbours, even through they were political opponents.  Thomas McKean later served as President of Congress, Governor of Delaware, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, and Governor of Pennsylvania.  Caesar Rodney did suffer from cancer (as mentioned in #35) and did usually cover part of his face with a scarf to hide it.  He did also make a last-minute ride back to Philadelphia from Delaware, which is commemorated in the Delaware state quarter, but he did it alone, not because McKean fetched him (as stated in #70), and he was in Delaware dealing with other Revolutionary business, not because he was dying--he actually lived until 1784 and later served as governor of Delaware.

    -#16 is partly right in that Dickinson opposed independence.  However, Judge Wilson actually supported independence personally, although he did not do so officially until he got instructions to do so from his district back in Pennsylvania.  His character is combined with other delegates from Pennsylvania who did oppose independence.  Furthermore, it is true that the majority of Pennsylvania's delegation was opposed to independence for most of the debate, until one undecided delegate decided to support Franklin and Wilson in voting for independence, and John Dickinson and another delegate chose to abstain from voting, allowing Pennsylvania to vote for independence, a little like what is shown in #75, but only a little.  Wilson later helped to write the Pennsylvania Constitution and the US Constitution, and served on the US Supreme Court.

    -#19--William Franklin was born to Benjamin Franklin and an unknown mother in 1730, and Benjamin Franklin acknowledged him and raised him as his own son.  Benjamin Franklin helped William get the post as Royal Governor of New Jersey, but they fell out in 1774 as the crisis between Britain the colonies grew worse.  In 1776 William Franklin was arrested (as stated in #37) and imprisoned in Connecticut, including eight months in solitary confinement.  He was released in 1778 as part of a prisoner exchange, but stayed in British-controlled New York City until 1782, at which point he sailed for England and never returned to America.  He and his father wrote to each other a few times after the war ended, and met once briefly in London, but never really reconciled.  William Franklin had an illegitimate son of his own, William Temple Franklin, who also was largely raised by Benjamin and even served as his secretary while Benjamin was working as a diplomat in France.

    -#21, #56, & #57 are all correct--General Sir William Howe planned to invade New York and New Jersey with the help of his brother, Admiral Lord Richard Howe.  Together they had about 25,000 regulars and 10,000 sailors, the largest expeditionary force Britain would amass prior to World War I, and they ultimately did seize New York City and hold it for the rest of the war. 

    -#22 Dr. Josiah Bartlett was actually a doctor as well as a politician, and later served as Governor of New Hampshire.  In another connection with late 20th and early 21st Century television, the fictional president in the series The West Wing is said to be descended from Dr. Josiah Bartlett, and is even named after him.

    -#23 is mostly correct in and of itself--Richard Henry Lee did officially propose independence with this wording, but he did not go to Virginia to get that declaration, he was instructed to do so by a message sent to him in Philadelphia.  Likewise, he did not go back to Virginia to serve as governor as stated in #40, although he did leave Congress before the Declaration was signed (although he signed it the next time he was in town).  He later served as President of Congress and as a US Senator.

    -#26 is more or less correct--New York's delegation did abstain from a number of votes, including the initial vote for independence because they had no instructions from New York on which way to vote.  Eventually New York did instruct her delegates to sign the Declaration.

    -#27 is not particularly accurate, and even offends some people from North Carolina.  Not only did Joseph Hewes support independence on his own, North Carolina had adopted the Mecklenberg Resolves on 31 May, 1775 stating that ' all Laws... derived from the Authority of the King or Parliament, are annulled,' sometimes described as the first declaration of independence in America.  Furthermore,  North Carolina and South Carolina were not politically or economically very similar, and North Carolina was never really inclined to yield to South Carolina.

    -#29 and especially #31 are important, because most colonists had been proud to be part of a powerful, rich, and free empire, and it was only when they felt their rights as English people were being violated that they felt forced to declare independence from a government that no longer respected their rights, as is also seen in #65.

    -#36--Reverend John Witherspoon was a Presbyterian minister and served a president of Princeton University for 26 years.

    -#41 is party true--Mr. Jefferson did want to return to his wife, but that was because Martha Jefferson was in poor health following a miscarriage and a case of gestational diabetes, and he was worried about her.  Her health was always poor, and she died in 1782 and the age of 33.  She asked her husband to never marry again, and he didn't.  She did not actually visit her husband in Philadelphia as shown in #46; the only delegate to Congress to have his wife nearby was John Dickinson.

    -#43--Roger Sherman was from Connecticut, and while his contribution to the Declaration of Independence was not large, he played a major role in creating the US Constitution, including the Great Compromise that allowed large states to be represented in the House of Representatives based on their population, while small states would still have an equal say in the Senate, where every state gets two votes no matter what.  This solved one of the major debates in the creation of the Constitution, making him one of our most important Founding Fathers.  Later he served as in both of those houses, as a Representative and a Senator from Connecticut.

    -#44 Robert Livingston was from New York, although he did not go home to celebrate the birth of a child, but rather to attend to other political issues (so that he never actually signed the Declaration of Independence, although one of his cousins did sign it, and another cousin signed the US Constitution).  Later, Livingston served as the highest-ranked judge in New York (in which role he swore George Washington in as President of the United States) and was the Ambassador to France who negotiated the Louisiana Purchase.  He also funded the experiments of Robert Fulton that produced the world's first profitable steamboat.

    -#49 is based on an actual statement by Adams in a letter written in 1790 that 'The History of our Revolution will be one continued Lye from one End to the other' and that Franklin and Washington would get credit for the whole thing, pretty much as stated in the movie (except without mentioning Washington's horse).

    -#52 is actually true--Samuel Chase was known as Old Bacon Face.  He later served on the US Supreme Court, where he has the distinction of being the only Supreme Court Justice to ever be impeached, although in the end he was not convicted.  The charge was that his decisions were biased against his political enemies, but it was decided that wasn't actually a crime that he could be removed from office for.

    -#54 is untrue.  The War Committee never went to investigate conditions in New Jersey.  However, Adams, Franklin, and Edward Rutledge did make a trip to New York in September, 1776, to meet with General Howe to discuss peace.  The peace conference was a failure, of course, because Howe could not recognise the Declaration of Independence, but some details of the trip inspired this part of the movie.

    -#55 is from the song that Richard Nixon wanted removed from the movie.

    -#60 is a widely-reported myth, and is partly true.  Benjamin Franklin did criticise the eagle as a bird that steal fish from other birds, and did say that the turkey was a much more respectable bird, largely for the reasons stated in the movie, but he never went so far as to propose the turkey as America's national bird.

    -#66 uses a term for slavery, 'peculiar institution,' that was actually first used in 1830 by South Carolina politician John C. Calhoun, and simply meant that slavery was unique to the South.  In many ways, 1776 takes the debate about slavery from the mid-1800s and puts it in 1776.  People certainly were debating the morality of slavery during the American Revolution (and even before it), but the clear divide between North and South shown in the movie is really mixing later attitudes into an earlier era.  For one thing, in 1776, slavery existed in all 13 colonies, although some in New England soon abolished it.  Slavery was particularly important in New York, in addition to its importance in the Southern colonies.

    -#67 is true, to an extent.  Mr. Jefferson did want to free his slaves, but in fact, due to his deep debts, was mostly unable to do so.  A few were freed in his will, but most were sold to cover his debts.  On the other hand, many other signers of the Declaration did free their slaves, including John Hancock, John Dickinson, and Stephen Hopkins.  George Washington also freed his slaves upon his death.  Benjamin Franklin had owned slaves when he was younger, but had turned against slavery in the 1760s, although he did not become an outspoken abolitionist until the 1780s (despite what he claims in the play).

    -#68 refers to the triangular trade, which actually could follow a couple of different routes.  It might carry rum to West Africa to trade for slaves who were sold in the Caribbean sugar colonies and molasses that was purchased there was then taken to New England and distilled into rum, some of which would then go to West Africa.  On the other hand, it might involve manufactured goods from Europe going to Africa where they were traded for slaves, who were then carried to the New World and sold.  Raw materials from the New World would then go to Europe where they would be processed into manufactured goods which might then be re-sold in the colonies or might be taken to Africa and traded for more slaves who would then be shipped to the New World.  In either case, the route between Africa and the Americas was referred to as the Middle Passage, and was truly brutal as slaves were packed into cramped and unsanitary conditions for weeks or months.

    -#76 is partly true.  Dickinson did leave Congress, although not right away, and he did become an officer in the Pennsylvania militia and even help delay a later British attack on Philadelphia.  He also helped write the Articles of Confederation that would serve as a framework of government from 1781 until the US Constitution was adopted in 1788.  Dickinson also signed the US Constitution and served as governor of Delaware and of Pennsylvania.

    -#77 is supposedly what John Hancock really said upon signing the Declaration, although that is probably just a myth.

    -#78 reflects the military situation in New York at this time.  The troops that Washington sent to Brooklyn Heights were soon defeated, too, although Washington was able to evacuate most of them so they could fight again another day rather than be captured.  New York City would be entirely lost before the end of summer and held by the British until several months after the war officially ended.

    -#79 is not entirely correct.  Lewis Morris had already left Congress to serve as a general in the New York militia.  However, his home was damaged by the British and had to be rebuilt after the war, and his three oldest sons did serve in the Revolutionary War.  New York did send instructions not long afterwards for the New York delegates to sign the Declaration, but they did initially abstain from the vote.

    -#80 was actually done by another delegate from Rhode Island, William Ellery, but when he was watching Stephen Hopkins sign, Hopkins's hand was shaking from what was probably Parkinson's disease, but Hopkins looked at him and said 'my hand trembles, but my heart does not.'


This page last updated 13 August, 2020.
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